Post emancipation Mississippi began systematic exclusion of Blacks from the politics of South through the use of white primaries and other devices.
The Mississippi Plan was the predecessor to Jim Crow. It introduced literacy and understanding tests and was later adopted by South Carolina, Louisiana, North Carolina, Alabama, Virginia, Georgia, and Oklahoma.
The "Redemption" plan was designed to allow whites to regained control of the state legislatures. They used gerrymandering of election districts to further reduce Black voting strength and minimize the number of black elected officials. In the 1890s, these states began to amend their constitutions and to enact a series of laws intended to re- establish and entrench white political supremacy.